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Grow Lights Basics

2014-05-03 3:04:46 PM

Commercial growers have been using efficient hydroponic methods for years. There's no worry about soil-born diseases or pests, and there's no weeding. For professional growers, quicker harvests and higher yields are good reasons to use hydroponics.

Most commercial Hydropoinc Equipment Manufacturers have adapted these proven techniques to convenient home gardening systems. They have incorporated high performance technology with quality professional-grade materials, and designed a full range of systems for your personal use.

Grow Lights Basics

Most commercial Hydropoinc Equipment Manufacturers have taken highly effective but cumbersome commercial greenhouse technology and created a broad selection of high intensity lighting systems for both the novice indoor gardener and the seasoned indoor grower. Our high intensity grow lights are easy for home gardeners to use. They come pre-wired and are rated at 120 volts (your normal home current), so they’re compatible with any standard home outlet. Just hang them from a simple ceiling hook, plug them in, and start growing.

With those sun-like high intensity lighting, you can turn any room of your home into a virtual greenhouse. Grow any plant, anywhere, anytime you choose! Imagine harvesting fresh tomatoes, picking peppers or growing a rare orchid in your basement – these lights make it possible. A single system can easily provide all the light needed to cover anywhere from a 1' x 2' area up to a 12' x 12' area, depending on what size wattage system meets your growing needs.

Now the full spectrum fluorescents and lighting systems make it easy to grow the garden you want – whether you’re starting seedlings for your outdoor spring garden or growing your favorite plants indoors. Use our lower wattage fluorescents for seedlings, cuttings and low light plants like African violets. Higher wattage fluorescent grow lights provide an excellent starter light for year-round gardening indoors.

High Intensity Lights are Easy to Use

The most important innovations has been to take the effective but cumbersome commercial greenhouse lights and make them easy for home gardeners to use. The High Intensity Grow Light can be hung from a simple ceiling hook and plugged in as easily as a home table lamp.

The systems are completely pre-wired, UL, cUL or ETL listed (with lens), and ready to plug in. Everything is rated at 120 volts (your normal home current) and plugs into any standard home outlet.

Posted in Hydroculture By Luke

Not all light is the same.

Plants respond differently to different colors of light.

Light on either end of the spectrum, blue light or red light, have the greatest impact on photosynthesis.

Kinds of Light

Blue light, referred to as cool light, encourages compact bushy growth.

Red light, on the opposite end of the spectrum, triggers a hormone response which creates blooms.

Grow lights producing the orange and reddish light typically produce substantial heat, however, some lights are able to produce full spectrum light without the heat.

Grow lights come in all shapes, sizes and price ranges.

As a general rule, inexpensive lights to purchase tend to be the most expensive to operate and the least effective. While price is not necessarily an indicator of performance, many of the efficient grow lights require ballasts as well as specialized fixtures.

Image of vegetable being grown indoors under artificial light is via fortikur.com.

Basic Types of Grow Lights

These lights run the gamut of performance and price range.

Incandescent Lights.

The least expensive lights to purchase cost around $30. These incandescent lights work well for specific plants where the light is placed a minimum of 24” from the plant. These lights get extremely hot so they must be used with care. Spot grow bulbs, color corrected incandescent lights, install easily and are good for use with a specific plant or a small grouping of plants. Most spot incandescent bulbs last less than 1,000 hours. Some light fixtures come with a clip handle so you can put them exactly where they’re needed. 

 

 

Fluorescent Grow Lights.

They are a common choice for homeowners. Fluorescent lights are reasonably energy efficient and relatively easy to install. A typical fluorescent bulb will last approximately 20,000 hours. Fluorescent light is typically on the blue end of the spectrum. Blue light encourages bushy compact growth which makes them perfect for seed starting. Blue light is also cool to the touch making it possible to place lights within just a few inches of the seedlings.

 

 

 

New Full-Spectrum Fluorescent Lights.

Provide the red spectrum as well to encourage blooming.

Combining the lights in a fixture makes for even, all around growth.

The next generation in fluorescent lighting includes the new T-5 lights.

These new lights have extremely high output but are energy efficient and long lasting.

The T-5 lights triple the light output of normal fluorescent lights without increasing the wattage. Plants absorb a high percentage of T-5 lighting because the fixtures function well very close to plants. High output bulbs require a high output fixture to operate, so the bulbs and normal fluorescent fixtures will not work together.

LED Lights

The newest type of grow lights use LED technology.

One major advantage to the LED lights is the small size.

LED lights are only a few inches in diameter and are easy to mount.

In some greenhouses, LED lights may be the only practical light option.

Hanging most grow lights requires a strong greenhouse structure and a place to hang the lights.

LED lights weigh a fraction of other lights and are easy to configure where needed. According to LED manufacturers, LED grow lights maximize blue and red light to provide and excellent balance for plants.

They do not have much green-yellow light. Since humans see green-yellow light best LED grow lights appear dim to our eyes. This is an exciting new technology that will be interesting to watch as it develops.

The Best Grow Light Option

Now that I’ve given you a good rundown on greenhouse lighting options, it’s also important to mention darkness.

Almost all plants benefit from a period of six hours or more of darkness.

It’s a good idea to know how much light your plants need, but unlike commercial growers, hobbyists often have a wide variety of plants so they need to take a broad approach to lighting.

Fluorescent lights offer excellent overall lighting options.

Other Considerations

If you chose to use any type of fluorescent lighting, you will need to account for plant growth.

Fluorescent lights perform best when positioned very close to plants.

As plants grow into the light, it is important to raise the fixture.

Generally only the plants touching the lights will burn, but be prepared because they grow quickly.

Adjustable hangers are a good solution. These hangers move easily allowing you to make quick adjustments.

* Above documents are via or from urbanorganicgardener.com

Posted in Hydroculture By Luke

What's Color Temperature?

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, photography,videography, publishing, manufacturing, astrophysics, horticulture, and other fields. In practice, color temperature is only meaningful for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely to the radiation of some black body, i.e. those on a line from reddish/orange via yellow and more or less white to blueish white; it does not make sense to speak of the color temperature of e.g. a green or a purple light. Color temperature is conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the kelvin, having the unit symbol K.

Color temperatures over 5,000K are called cool colors (bluish white), while lower color temperatures (2,700–3,000 K) are called warm colors (yellowish white through red).[1] This relation, however, is a psychological one in contrast to the physical relation implied by Wien's displacement law, according to which the spectral peak is shifted towards shorter wavelengths (resulting in a more blueish white) for higher temperatures.

Categorizing different lighting

The color temperature of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal black body is defined as its surface temperature in kelvin, or alternatively in mired (micro-reciprocal kelvin).[4] This permits the definition of a standard by which light sources are compared.

To the extent that a hot surface emits thermal radiation but is not an ideal black body radiator, the color temperature of the light is not the actual temperature of the surface. An incandescent lamp's light is thermal radiation and the bulb approximates an ideal black body radiator, so its color temperature is essentially the temperature of the filament.

Many other light sources, such as fluorescent lamps, or LED's (light emitting diodes) emit light primarily by processes other than thermal radiation. This means the emitted radiation does not follow the form of a black body spectrum. These sources are assigned what is known as a correlated color temperature (CCT). CCT is the color temperature of a black body radiator which to human color perception most closely matches the light from the lamp. Because such an approximation is not required for incandescent light, the CCT for an incandescent light is simply its unadjusted temperature, derived from the comparison to a black body radiator.

The Sun[edit]

The Sun closely approximates a black body radiator. The effective temperature, defined by the total radiative power per square unit, is about 5,780 K.[5] The color temperature of sunlight above the atmosphere is about 5,900 K.[6]

As the Sun crosses the sky, it may appear to be red, orange, yellow or white depending on its position. The changing color of the sun over the course of the day is mainly a result of scattering of light, and is not due to changes in black body radiation. The blue color of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light.

Daylight has a spectrum similar to that of a black body with a correlated color temperature of 6,500 K (D65 viewing standard) or 5,500 K (daylight-balanced photographic film standard).

For colors based on black body theory, blue occurs at higher temperatures, while red occurs at lower, cooler, temperatures. This is the opposite of the cultural associations attributed to colors, in which "red" is "hot", and "blue" is "cold".

 

*** Contents are from wikipedia.org

Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

Color temperature applications

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

Color temperature applications

Lighting

Color temperature comparison of common electric lamps
Color temperature comparison of common electric lamps

For lighting building interiors, it is often important to take into account the color temperature of illumination. For example, a warmer (i.e., lower color temperature) light is often used in public areas to promote relaxation, while a cooler (higher color temperature) light is used to enhance concentration in offices.[8]

CCT dimming for LED technology is regarded as a difficult task, since binning, age and temperature drift effects of LEDs change the actual color value output. Here feedback loop systems are used for example with color sensors, to actively monitor and control the color output of multiple color mixing LEDs.[9]

Aquaculture[edit]

In fishkeeping, color temperature has different functions and foci, for different branches.

  • In freshwater aquaria, color temperature is generally of concern only for producing a more attractive display.[citation needed] Lights tend to be designed to produce an attractive spectrum, sometimes with secondary attention to keeping plants alive.
  • In a saltwater/reef aquarium, color temperature is an essential part of tank health. Within about 400 to 3000 nanometers, light of shorter wavelength can penetrate deeper into water than longer wavelengths (see Electromagnetic absorption by water),[10][11][12] providing essential energy sources to the algae hosted in (and sustaining) coral. This is equivalent to an increase of color temperature with water depth in this spectral range. Because coral, typically living in shallow water, receives intense, direct tropical sunlight, the focus was once on simulating this with 6,500 K lights. Higher temperature light sources have become more popular, first with 10,000 K and more recently 16,000 K and 20,000 K.[citation needed] Meanwhile, actinic lighting is used to make the somewhat fluorescent colors of many corals and fish "pop", creating brighter "display" tanks.

Digital photography[edit]

In digital photography, color temperature is sometimes used interchangeably with white balance, which allow a remapping of color values to simulate variations in ambient color temperature. Most digital cameras and RAW image software provide presets simulating specific ambient values (e.g., sunny, cloudy, tungsten, etc.) while others allow explicit entry of white balance values in kelvins. These settings vary color values along the blue–yellow axis, while some software includes additional controls (sometimes labeled tint) adding the magenta–green axis, and are to some extent arbitrary and subject to artistic interpretation.[13]

Photographic film[edit]

Photographic emulsion film sometimes appears to exaggerate the color of the light, as it does not adapt to lighting color as human visual perception does. An object that appears to the eye to be white may turn out to look very blue or orange in a photograph. The color balance may need to be corrected while shooting or while printing to achieve a neutral color print.

Photographic film is made for specific light sources (most commonly daylight film and tungsten film), and used properly, will create a neutral color print. Matching the sensitivity of the film to the color temperature of the light source is one way to balance color. If tungsten film is used indoors with incandescent lamps, the yellowish-orange light of the tungsten incandescent lamps will appear as white (3,200 K) in the photograph.

Filters on a camera lens, or color gels over the light source(s) may also be used to correct color balance. When shooting with a bluish light (high color temperature) source such as on an overcast day, in the shade, in window light or if using tungsten film with white or blue light, a yellowish-orange filter will correct this. For shooting with daylight film (calibrated to 5,600 K) under warmer (low color temperature) light sources such as sunsets, candlelight or tungsten lighting, a bluish (e.g., #80A) filter may be used.

If there is more than one light source with varied color temperatures, one way to balance the color is to use daylight film and place color-correcting gel filters over each light source.

Photographers sometimes use color temperature meters. Color temperature meters are usually designed to read only two regions along the visible spectrum (red and blue); more expensive ones read three regions (red, green, and blue). However, they are ineffective with sources such as fluorescent or discharge lamps, whose light varies in color and may be harder to correct for. Because it is often greenish, a magenta filter may correct it. More sophisticated colorimetry tools can be used where such meters are lacking.

Desktop publishing[edit]

In the desktop publishing industry, it is important to know a monitor’s color temperature. Color matching software, such as Apple's ColorSync for Mac OS, will measure a monitor's color temperature and then adjust its settings accordingly. This enables on-screen color to more closely match printed color. Common monitor color temperatures, along with matching standard illuminants in parentheses, are as follows:

  • 5,000 K (D50)
  • 5,500 K (D55)
  • 6,500 K (D65)
  • 7,500 K (D75)
  • 9,300 K.

D50 is scientific shorthand for a standard illuminant: the daylight spectrum at a correlated color temperature of 5,000 K. Similar definitions exist for D55, D65 and D75. Designations such asD50 are used to help classify color temperatures of light tables and viewing booths. When viewing a color slide at a light table, it is important that the light be balanced properly so that the colors are not shifted towards the red or blue.

Digital cameras, web graphics, DVDs, etc., are normally designed for a 6,500 K color temperature. The sRGB standard commonly used for images on the Internet stipulates (among other things) a 6,500 K display whitepoint.

TV, video, and digital still cameras[edit]

The NTSC and PAL TV norms call for a compliant TV screen to display an electrically black and white signal (minimal color saturation) at a color temperature of 6,500 K. On many consumer-grade televisions, there is a very noticeable deviation from this requirement. However, higher-end consumer-grade televisions can have their color temperatures adjusted to 6,500 K by using a preprogrammed setting or a custom calibration. Current versions of ATSC explicitly call for the color temperature data to be included in the data stream, but old versions of ATSC allowed this data to be omitted. In this case, current versions of ATSC cite default colorimetry standards depending on the format. Both of the cited standards specify a 6,500 K color temperature.

Most video and digital still cameras can adjust for color temperature by zooming into a white or neutral colored object and setting the manual "white balance" (telling the camera that "this object is white"); the camera then shows true white as white and adjusts all the other colors accordingly. White-balancing is necessary especially when indoors under fluorescent lighting and when moving the camera from one lighting situation to another. Most cameras also have an automatic white balance function that attempts to determine the color of the light and correct accordingly. While these settings were once unreliable, they are much improved in today's digital cameras, and will produce an accurate white balance in a wide variety of lighting situations.

Artistic application via control of color temperature[edit]

The house above appears a light cream during the midday, but seems a bluish white here in the dim light before full sunrise. Note the different color temperature of the sunrise in the background.

Video camera operators can white-balance objects which aren't white, downplaying the color of the object used for white-balancing. For instance, they can bring more warmth into a picture by white-balancing off something light blue, such as faded blue denim; in this way white-balancing can serve in place of a filter or lighting gel when those are not available.

Cinematographers do not "white balance" in the same way as video camera operators; they can use techniques such as filters, choice of film stock, pre-flashing, and after shooting, color grading (both by exposure at the labs and also digitally). Cinematographers also work closely with set designers and lighting crews to achieve the desired effects.

For artists, most pigments and papers have a cool or warm cast, as the human eye can detect even a minute amount of saturation. Gray mixed with yellow, orange or red is a "warm gray". Green, blue, or purple, create "cool grays". Note that this sense of temperature is the reverse of that of real temperature; bluer is described as "cooler" even though it corresponds to a higher-temperature black body.

Grays.svg
"Warm" gray "Cool" gray
Mixed with 6% yellow. Mixed with 6% blue.

Lighting designers sometimes select filters by color temperature, commonly to match light that is theoretically white. Since fixtures using discharge type lamps produce a light of considerably higher color temperature thantungsten lamps, using the two in conjunction could potentially produce a stark contrast, so sometimes fixtures with HID lamps, commonly producing light of 6,000–7,000 K, are fitted with 3,200 K filters to emulate tungsten light. Fixtures with color mixing features or with multiple colors, (if including 3,200 K) are also capable of producing tungsten like light. Color temperature may also be a factor when selecting lamps, since each is likely to have a different color temperature.[14]

* Above good text are from wikipedia.org

Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

"Color" of Light Sources.

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

The "color" of light sources is derived from a complicated relationship derived from a number of different measurements, including correlated color temperature (CCT), color rendering index (CRI), and spectral distribution. In general, color is most accurately described by a combination of CCT and CRI.

Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)
The first factor in choosing a lamp color is the correlated color temperature. For example, if a retailer wants lighting to blend in with warm halogen accent lamps, the retailer may choose a Venture® MP 100W/C/U/3K, which has a correlated color temperature of 3200K. CCT is defined as the absolute temperature (expressed in degrees Kelvin) of a theoretical black body whose chromaticity most nearly resembles that of the light source. The CCT rating is an indication of how "warm" or "cool" the light source appears. The higher the number, the cooler the lamp color will appear. The lower the number, the warmer the lamp color will appear.

Spectral Energy Distribution
When we look at a light source, the eye "perceives" a single color. In reality, we are seeing literally thousands of colors and hues made up of a combination of different wavelengths of light. These different combinations and the relative intensity of various wavelengths of light are used to determine the CRI of a light source.

 

Color Rendering Index (CRI or Ra)

In general, CRI is a numeric indication of a lamp’s ability to render individual colors accurately relative to a standard. The CRI value is derived from a comparison of the lamp’s spectral distribution to the standard (e.g. a black body or the daytime sky) at the same color temperature. 

Color Shift and Variation
Different colors are produced in metal halide lamps by using various arc tube shapes and metal halide salts. In new lamps these halides need to "burn-in" for approximately 100 hours before they reach their optimum color. This is why new lamps can sometimes be unstable or vary in color.

As metal halide lamps age, chemical changes occur causing shifts in color. Generally, traditional probe start lamps shift approximately twice as much in CCT over life compared to Uni-Form® pulse start lamps. 

Special Colors:
Designer Color® lamps that produce blue, green, aqua and pink light are available for special applications where color is needed without light loss due to filters.

Different Colors
Venture Lighting offers lamps in many colors to suit virtually any lighting application. Outlined below are the various color temperatures (CCT) currently available:

27K 2700K - Used as a replacement for very warm incandescent lamps (coated only).

3K 3000K-3200K - Used as a general warm, white light source, available in clear or

coated finish for retail or interior applications; blends with halogen lamps.

4K 3700K-4000K - Used as a neutral white light source, available in clear or coated finish for general lighting, factories, parking lots, warehouses.

5K 5000K - A moderately high CCT daylight source used in general and retail lighting applications

6K 6500K - A high CCT daylight source used to simulate average outdoor light conditions

10K 10,000K - A very high CCT, daylight light source, used in horticulture and aquarium applications.

Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

Light Output

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

Open or Enclosed
All ratings based on the use of a 9000 lumen rated 100 watt metal halide, vertically oriented lampin a commercially available 8" aperature, black baffled downlight.

 

Light Output 
The lumen output values at specific hours of lamp life can be measured and plotted. This lumen maintenance (or lumen depreciation) curve contains important data for lighting designers. Though initial lumen ratings at 100 hours are frequently the basis for comparing light sources, mean lumens, determined at 40% of rated lamp life, are the most important. Mean lumen ratings are based on the lamps operating at 10 hours per start (except where noted). Lamp lumens are measured on a reference ballast in the designed operating position at the rated lamp wattage.

 

Lumen maintenance curves represent the lamp manufacturer’s estimate of the best lamp lumen output plotted over time. Typically, each group of lamps tested will display a range or scatter of lumen maintenance values at each interval measured. Therefore, individual lamps may vary from published mean lumen ratings.

 


Many factors affect the performance of metal halide lamps over time. Most of these factors (see table) are controllable in the design of the lighting system. Incorporating as many of the optimized conditions as possible will deliver the best performance from any given metal halide lighting system. More light reducing conditions present in the design of the lighting system create a gap between published "optimized" ratings and actual lighting system performance.

For example, Venture’s Uni-Form® pulse start lamp operated on an a low current crest factorSingle Voltage Hybrid or HX magnetic ballast, and other optimized conditions, can be expected to deliver mean lumens approaching 80%. In contrast, astandard metal halide system operating under light-reducing conditions may deliver only 50% lumen maintenance. Venture Lighting publishes "optimized mean lumens."


Even within the Uni-Form pulse start system, you can expect a range of lumen maintenance from 70% to 80%. (see chart below) Performance will vary depending on the number of light-reducing conditions present. By selecting a Uni-Form pulse start lamp, a low current crest factor Single Voltage Hybrid or HX magneticballast, and optimizing the system conditions, significant improvements in lighting system performance can be achieved

.

Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

Lighting Design for Low Light Levels

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

Studies on nighttime visibility demonstrate experimentally that the sensitivity of the human eye to different colors of light at various light levels determines the true, or effective, lumen output of a lamp. Recent research shows that the color output of the light source has a significant effect on nighttime visibility, which is important because road accidents occur mostly at night. Also, it is well known that the eye responds to color depending upon the amount of light availab

le.


Photopic, Scotopic And Mesopic Conditions
Lumens are the standard measure of light output, but light is actually defined as energy evaluated by the eye. Standard lumen measurements define the light output response of a person only during high light levels (called photopic light), typical of daylight and interior lighting. The light meter measures photopic light as seen by the central region of the eye.

When light levels are very low, like starlight, the viewing conditions are referred to as "scotopic." Under these conditions, the eye’s visual response changes dramatically. Sensitivity to yellow and red light is greatly reduced, while response to blue light is vastly increased. If lamp lumens under scotopic viewing conditions have been determined using photopic measurements, the lumen value does not accurately measure the true amount of light production as perceived by the human eye.

The eye response does not shift suddenly from high light levels to low light levels. A gradual change occurs as light levels are reduced in twilight and typical street lighting conditions. This is the "mesopic" condition in which the eye’s response lies somewhere between photopic and scotopic.

Rods And Cones
The change in the eye’s spectral response is due to the presence of two types of light receivers in the retina, called rods and cones. Rods are responsible for human vision at low light levels and are located in the peripheral field of view. Conversely, only objects viewed directly by the eye are seen by the cones. Rods are sensitive to scotopic light; cones react to photopic light. Therefore, as the light level is reduced, cones become less active and rods become more active. 

Eye Color Sensitivity And Lumens
The value of a lamp’s lumen output is different when considering the shifting color sensitivity of the eye at low light levels. The effective lumens will be different from the measured photopic lumens. As light diminishes from photopic to scotopic conditions, the effective lumens of yellow HPS light sources are reduced and the effective lumens of white light with blue/green content increases. 

This effect is dramatic for low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps. Almost all energy output from this lighting system is yellow, resulting in high photopic lumen output. At low light levels, the effectiveness of LPS lamps is drastically reduced.

 

 

Metal Halide Lamps For Low Light Levels
A typical metal halide lamp has strong light output in the blue, green and yellow areas, resulting in high lumen output at all light levels. The blue light output of metal halide is in the high sensitivity region of the eye for low light levels. This means that the effective lumens actually increase for a metal halide lamp as the light level reduces and the eye shifts to a blue/green peak sensitivity.
 

The ability to detect fine contrast is also significantly better under metal halide sources than sodium. Reaction time under LPS and HPS lighting is roughly 50% longer than for metal halide. Therefore, the color output of a light source has an important influence on safety. Studies have shown that metal halide lighting, in some circumstances, can be up to six times as effective as HPS. This can make a difference in peripheral viewing and dark areas where hidden hazards may be present.

Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

Proper Use of Metal Halide Lamps

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

Proper Use of Metal Halide Lamps
It is imperative that users adhere to specified luminaire and lamp operating positions and requirements. The operation of lamps in positions other than those specified can result in severe reductions in lamp performance, including lamp life, light output and color. Incorrect operating positions can also create the possibility of an early failure.

 

Refer to each lamp’s technical data specification sheet to determine correct operating position and luminaire requirements. Also, refer to the diagram in this section to determine allowable operating positions.

Correct Operation and Warnings For High Intensity Discharge Lamps:
High intensity discharge (HID) lamps require auxiliary equipment (ballasts, capacitors, ignitors or power supplies) to provide the correct electrical values for starting and operating. This auxiliary equipment must meet all electrical specifications outlined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Venture Lighting International will not be responsible for poor performance, personal injury, property damage, burns or fire from lamps operating on unapproved auxiliary equipment or from lamps being operated in a manner inconsistent with their design.

Power should always be turned off and preferably locked out in accordance with OSHA guidelines whenever installation, removal or maintenance is performed on lighting systems. Safety glasses and gloves should be used when installing or removing HID lamps. Lamps should be installed firmly into appropriate lamp sockets, without over tightening, to avoid loosening from vibration.

HID lamps and their arc tubes operate at extremely high temperatures and may shatter as a result of misapplication, system failure or other factors. Scratches on the outer bulb, direct contact with water or excessive installation pressure can also cause the lamps to break. Breakage may release extremely hot glass and lamp parts into the surrounding environment and raise the risk of fire, personal injury or property damage. Injury may also be caused by ultraviolet energy from an unjacketed HID lamp. If the outer jacket should break, immediately turn the power off. Do not remove a lamp until it has completely cooled; then replace it with a new Venture® lamp. In areas susceptible to contamination by flying glass, where flammable materials are present or where there is a possibility of personal injury, users should seek additional protective measures by using open fixture (O-rated) lamps and enclosed luminaires.

 

Federal Compliance - Metal Halide
Venture® lamps comply with USA Federal Standard 21 CFR 1040.30 and Canada Standard SOR/80-381.

"WARNING: This lamp can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from shortwave ultraviolet radiation if outer envelope of the lamp is broken or punctured and the arc tube continues to operate. Do not use where people will remain for more than a few minutes unless adequate shielding or other safety precautions are used. Lamps that will automatically extinguish when the outer envelope is broken or punctured are commercially available."

Careful adherence to the precautions mentioned above may not eliminate all possible risks associated with the use of metal halide lamps, but will reduce the likelihood of personal injury or property damage.

End-of-Life and Reduction of Risk
At end-of-life, the vast majority of metal halide lamps will fail simply by not reigniting. On rare occasions, metal halide lamps may fail in a violent manner. The possibility of this failure is significantly reduced by group relamping at or before the rated end of life. (see Group Relamping) In any application where lamps are operated continuously (24 hrs/day, seven days/week), the lamps should always be turned off for a period of at least 15 minutes once a week, a precaution that can reduce the possibility of violent failures. This procedure is not required when Venture’s open rated, shrouded lamps are used. These lamps are easily identified by the "MP" or "MPI" in the order code.

 

Starting and Restarting Characteristics
Probe start metal halide lamps will start at an ambient temperature of -30°C (-22°F) or higher. Full light output does not occur immediately when power is applied to any metal halide lamp; there is a time delay of at least two to four minutes after starting before lamps reach full light output. After lamps have started, a power interruption of 1/4 cycle (1/240th of a second) or more may cause the lamps to extinguish. Several minutes are required before an arc can be re-established by the ballast and full light output achieved. The exact time is dependent on a number of factors including lamp wattage, ballast and ignitor characteristics, ambient temperature, fixture dimensions and supply voltage. The time needed to establish full light output can be as short as three minutes and as long as 15 to 20 minutes. In general, pulse start technology dramatically decreases the time for hot restart. Venture’s exclusive Uni-Form pulse start formed body arc tube provides warm-up and hot restrike in up to 60% less time and allows better starting, even down to -40°C (-40°F).

 


Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

Lamp Life
Lamp life is an important consideration when purchasing a new, retrofit or replacement lamp. Two very different and distinct terms describe life: "rated life" and "economic life."

Rated Life

Rated, or average (median), life for metal halide lamps is a value of lamp life expectancy based on laboratory and field tests of representative lamps, operating on approved ballasts, with a burn cycle of at least 10 hours per start. The average life is determined when 50% of traditional metal halide lamps initially installed are still operating.

Various operating conditions affect lamp life. One key factor is operating position. Position-oriented lamps (designed to operate in one specific position) are tested and rated based on that designated position. Operating these lamps in any other positions can dramatically shorten life, reduce lumen output and cause color shift. Lamps designated universal can be operated in any position. However, life expectancy and lumen output are sacrificed in certain positions. Published "rated life" for universal lamps is based on operation in the vertical position. "Rated life" for universal lamps operated horizontally is 75% of the published rating.

Economic Life

Economic life refers to the hours of operation during which a lamp is designed to provide optimum light output and color quality as well as lowest replacement cost. Economic life describes actual lamp life better than rated life because rated life does not account for the lumen depreciation and color shift that occur as lamps age. The economic life of lamps is generally 60% to 75% of the lamp rated life. Though economic life is important when considering a lighting system, lamp data tables show rated life because they provide a comparison with other lamp manufacturers’ ratings.

Posted in Bulbs & Tubes By Bob

LED Lamp

2014-05-03 2:21:00 AM

An LED lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product that is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency that is several times better than incandescent lamps, and significantly better than most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 100 lumens per watt. The LED lamp market is projected to grow more than 12-fold over the next decade, from $2 billion today to $25 billion in 2023, which is a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25%.[1]

Like incandescent lamps and unlike most fluorescent lamps (e.g. tubes and CFL), LED lights come to full brightness without need for a warm-up time; the life of fluorescent lighting is also reduced by frequent switching on and off.[citation needed] Initial cost of LED is usually higher. Degradation of LED dye and packaging materials reduces light output to some extent over time.

With research into organic LEDs (OLED) and polymer LEDs (PLED), cost per lumen and output per device have been improving rapidly according to what has been called Haitz's law, analogous to Moore's law for semiconductor devices.[citation needed]

Some LED lamps are made to be a directly compatible drop-in replacement for incandescent or fluorescent lamps. An LED lamp packaging may show the lumen output, power consumption in watts, color temperature in kelvins or description (e.g. "warm white") and sometimes the equivalent wattage of an incandescent lamp of similar luminous output.

LEDs do not emit light in all directions, and their directional characteristics affect the design of lamps. The light output of single LEDs is less than that of incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps; in most applications multiple LEDs are used to form a lamp, although high-power versions (see below) are becoming available.

LED chips need controlled direct current (DC) electrical power; an appropriate power supply is needed. LEDs are adversely affected by high temperature, so LED lamps typically include heat dissipation elements such as heat sinks and cooling fins.

* Above documents are from Wikipedia, if you like to get more details, please click here.

Posted in LED Lighting By Bob
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